PAT Impact

Proven impact

Parents as Teachers improves parenting practices by increasing a parent’s knowledge of early childhood development. Parent educators provide early detection of developmental delays and health issues, help in the prevention of child abuse and neglect, and increase children’s school readiness and success.

Ten Incredible Outcomes

1. Closing the achievement gap. 

PAT improves school readiness, virtually eliminating the achievement gap normally observed between poor children and their more affluent peers. 7

2. Prevents abuse and neglect

Parents as Teachers children had a 22 percent decreased likelihood
of child maltreatment substantiations compared to children not
in Parents as Teachers.8

3. PAT parents are more likely to read and sing to children.1 

4. PAT parents have deeper understanding of parenting strategies and approaches to discipline.

PAT parents showed significant improvements in parent knowledge, behavior and attitudes.5 Teen mothers showed greater improvement in knowledge about discipline.6

5. PAT kids are five times more likely to be fully immunized. 9
6. PAT parents and their kids spend more time at the library.

More than 75% of parents in PAT reported taking their child to the library regularly and modeling enjoyment of reading and writing.2

7. PAT parents are more likely to promote reading and have more books at home. 3,4

8. PAT parents are more involved with their child’s school.

Sixty-three percent of PAT parents (vs 37 percent of non-PAT parents) requested parent-teacher conferences. They were also more likely to attend school events, volunteer in the classroom, talk with their children’s teacher and help with homework.3,7

9. PAT parents are more likely to enroll their children in preschool.

PAT parents were more likely to enroll their children in preschool.

10. PAT kids have higher scores in reading, math and language.

Children in Parents as Teachers scored higher on standardized measures of reading, math and language at kindergarten entry and later grades.4,7

Learn more about the incredible impact of PAT


1 Wagner, M., Spiker, D. & Linn, M.I. (2002). The effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers program with low-income parents and children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(2), 67-81.
2 Pfannenstiel, J., Lambson, T., & Yarnell, V. (1996). The Parents as Teachers program: Longitudinal follow-up to the second wave study. Overland Park, KS: Research & Training Associates.
3 Albritton, S., Klotz, J., & Roberson, T. (2004). The effects of participating in a Parents as Teachers program on parental involvement in the learning process at school and home. E-Journal of Teaching and Learning in Diverse Settings, 1(2), 188-208.
4 Pfannenstiel, J. (2015). Evaluation of the I3 validation of improving education outcomes for American Indian children. Research and Training Associates, Inc. Kansas City, KS.
5 Wagner, M., Iida, E., & Spiker, D. (2001). The multisite evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting program: Three-year findings from Winston-Salem, NC. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
6 Wagner, M. Gerlach-Downes. (1996). Intervention in support of adolescent parents and their children: Findings from the Parents as Teachers demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
7 Zigler, E., Pfannenstiel, J., & Seitz, V. (2008). The Parents as Teachers program and school success: A replication and extension. Journal of Primary Prevention, 29, 103-120.
8. Chaiyachati, B., Gaither, J., Hughes, M., Foley-Schain, K., & Leventhal, J. (2018). Preventing child maltreatment: Examination of an established statewide home-visiting program. Journal of Child Abuse and Neglect, 49, 476-484.
9 Neuhauser, A., Ramseier, E., Schaub, S., Burkhardt, S. C. A., & Lanfranchi, A. (2018). The Mediating role of maternal sensitivity: Enhancing language development in at-risk families. Infant Mental Health Journal, 39, 522-536